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ORACLEデータベースを起動するときに、最初に起動するのはインスタンスで、つまり、nomount段階である。後でCONTROL_FILES バラメタで指定したコントロールファイル位置でデータベースMOUNT段階をロードする。次のステップはデータベースを起動する。このステップにはデータファイルとredoログを含んでいる。そして、前回のシャットダウンが乱暴しすぎた場合に、ロールフォワードしてください。実際には(apply redo)とロールバックするときに提出されていないトランザクションを完成する必要がある。

データベースの中止と起動にもいくつの階段に分けられる。まずはデータベースがクロスされて、データベースに変化しない。つまりデータファイルとredo logfileログファイルクロスされて、そしてdismount段階に入る。インスタンスがデータベースとのつながりがなくなる。データベースがunmountされたあとにOracleデータベースがコントロールファイルをクロスする。次のステップはSGAを削除して、バックグラウンドプロセスを中止する。これでインスタンスがクロスされた。

シャットダウンモードにもいろいろある。例えば、normal,immediate,transactionとabort.で、SHUTDOWN ABORTを除いて、データベースはSGAに必要としているデータをデータファイルとredo logfileに書き込む。もしSHUTDOWN ABORTあるいは意外中止が起こったが、SGAが必要としているデータをまだ抽出していない場合に、次データベースを起動するときに、crash recoveryしてください。これはOracleデータベースによって自主的に完成する。

Startup upgrade/migrateあるいは  _system_trig_enabled = FALSEを設定するのは起動する途中でトリガーを禁止する


Startup Slow / Hang


Startup can hang in any of the stages like nomount,mount or open stage. Following are some of the known issues reported so far:


Note 1367724.1 Startup Hangs at Mount Stage after AIO is Enabled on Linux

Note 429390.1 Database Startup Takes Longer time After Upgrade To 10.x

Note 552019.1 New Install and Creation of a 10gR2 database Hangs at Startup Nomount

Note 344933.1 DB Startup Can Hang if USE_INDIRECT_DATA_BUFFERS=TRUE and AWE_WINDOW_MEMORY Is Set Too High

Note 838451.1 Startup Hangs When “Processes” Parameter is Higher Than 10800

Note 1076092.1 Instance Startup Hangs After Creating New Undo Tablespace and Switching Between Old and New

Note 1476526.1 Database STARTUP NOMOUNT very slow after migrate to T4-4 Servers SPARC 64-Bit

Note 1475621.1 Oracle Database Startup And SGA Value Change Takes A Very Long Time To Complete


ORA-27102 Errors


ORA-27102 errors normally occurs due to memory issues.The Common causes could due to Semaphore Kernel misconfigurations,Memory related Ulimit settings,RAM and swap configurations.


Note 274092.1 LOCK_SGA on Windows fails with ORA-27102

Note 219752.1 ORA-27102 OSD-00034 Starting Database on Windows 2000

Note 390547.1 ORA-27102 Cannot Startup Instance via sqlplus

Note 1060677.6 ORA-27100 ORA-27102 Trying to Start 8.0.4 Database

Note 399895.1 Database Startup On Solaris 10 Fails With Ora-27102 Out Of Memory Error

Note 467707.1 ORA-27102: Out Of Memory on Oracle 10g Solaris 10 (x86-64)

Note 7272646.8 Bug 7272646 – Linux-x86_64: ORA-27103 on startup when MEMORY_TARGET > 3g


Note 263537.1 ORA-27102 out of memory When Trying To Start Database With SGA> 4G

Note 842881.1 ORA-27102, OSD-00031 Unable To Extend Memory_max_target And Memory_target Past 2GB

Note 1449714.1 Startup Fails With ORA-27102 After Upgrade From To

Note 461519.1 ORA-27102 Database Will Not Start With SHMMAX Set To 8589934592 (8GB)

Note 351930.1 Receiving ORA-27102 For 32-Bit Oracle While Allocating Sga_max_size Greater Than 4gb

Note 1351705.1 Startup Fails with ORA-27102 and ‘SVR4 Error 28: No space left on device’

Note 1292225.1 ORA-27102 OSD-00025 O/S-Error: (OS 1453) When Lock_sga is Set to True

Note 401077.1 Ora-27102: Out Of Memory: Linux Error: 12: Cannot Allocate Memory with LOCK_SGA=TRUE

Note 577898.1 ORA-27102 Received At Startup When LOCK_SGA Is Set Although Enough Memory Is Available

Note 301830.1 Upon startup of Linux database get ORA-27102: out of memory Linux-X86_64 Error: 28: No space left on device

Note 859898.1 The ORA-27102 error is generated on Solaris 10 having apparently correct settings of kernel parameters

Note 779861.1 ORA-27102: Out Of Memory And SVR4 Error: 22: Invalid argument During Startup On Solaris10 Server With Multiple DB Instances


ORA-27300 Errors


These errors are generally reported when the Operating System called for error or when there was a connection killed or a network interconnection failures or an OS configuration issue.The error ORA-27300 will also be accompanied by ora-27301 and ora-27302


Note 560309.1 Database Cannot Start Due to Lack of Memory

Note 579365.1 Troubleshooting ORA-27300 ORA-27301 ORA-27302 errors

Note 314179.1 Instance Startup Fails With Error ORA-27154,ORA-27300,ORA-27301,ORA-27302

Note 812115.1 Startup Fails With ORA-27300: Os System Dependent Operation:Fork Failed With Status:17

Note 814896.1 Startup Fails With ORA-27300: OS system dependent operation:IPC init failed with status: 65

Note 949468.1 Database Startup Fails with ORA-27300: OS system dependent operation:semget failed with status: 28


ORA-64 Errors


This error could occur when the database init.ora parameter calling for more resources than the Operating System is configured to provide.The parameters could be PROCESSES,DB_BLOCK_SIZE,SGA and more.


Note 470742.1 ORA-00064 Starting Database With Dispatchers

Note 556258.1 ORA-64 if Db_keep_cache_size is Set to 70 Gigs

Note 283980.1 ORA-00064: object is too large to allocate on this O/S

Note 1232463.1 ORA-00064: Object Is Too Large To Allocate On This O/S

Note 4466378.8 Bug 4466378 – ORA-64 does not report the caller description

Note 179301.1 Instance Startup Fails With ORA-00064 After Increasing Processes

Note 1457812.1 ORA-00064 Error Reported After Increasing Processes Parameter value

Note 18255.1 OERR: ORA 64 object is too large to allocate on this O/S <num, num>

Note 310838.1 Instance Startup failed with ORA-00064 when processes parameter set to High Value

Note 886312.1 Database startup can fail with ORA-00064 Errors with huge sga_target of over 40Gig

Note 1328620.1 ASM Instance Is Not Coming Up ORA-00064 (1,4468736,Kfchl Array) Kfchl Array

Note 815954.1 ORA-64 when starting ASM instance after changing db_cache_size and shared_pool_size

Note 7659217.8 Bug 7659217 – ORA-64 attempting to startup with a large SGA / buffer cache size

Note 386855.1 ‘startup migrate’ failed with ORA-64 while upgrading to with DBUA


ORA-27123 Errors


Note 167250.1 ORA-27123 When Connecting As Non Oracle User

Note 207743.1 Getting ORA-27123 when trying to startup Oracle

Note 115753.1 UNIX: Resolving the ORA-27123 error

Note 307323.1 Ora-27123 When Creating New Database

Note 167250.1 ORA-27123 When Connecting As Non Oracle User

Note 207743.1 Getting ORA-27123 when trying to startup Oracle

Note 61912.1 OERR: ORA-27123 unable to attach to shared memory segment

Note 250966.1 ORA-27123 During Startup, Immediately after a Shutdown

Note 872532.1 ORA-27123 on RHEL5 (PAE) 32bit when SGA larger than 2Gb

Note 552633.1 Starting the Database with SGA_TARGET set Fails with ORA-27123

Note 437582.1 Export Fails With EXP-00056 ORA-01034 ORA-27123 EXP-00005

Note 733974.1 ORA-27123 During Startup Nomount in 11G on AIX, Failure in SHMAT()

Note 369262.1 Startup with Maximum SGA Fails With Ora-27123 Unable To Attach Sga

Note 735187.1 Cannot Create Database With DBCA – Startup Nomount Gives ORA-27123

Note 1268668.1 Oracle Database 10g R2 Version – Receiving Ora-27123 Errors

Note 390766.1 ora-27123 on Solaris 10 with larger than 1.6 – 1.7Gb SGA

Note 384262.1 ORA-01034, ORA-27123, HP-UX Error 22 Connecting Via Oracle Net

Note 149070.1 VMS: Connections fail with ORA-1034 and ORA-27123 errors

Note 453930.1 Connecting to the database fails with ORA-12547, Ora-600 [Ksmlsge1], ORA-27123, Error 13

Note 207797.1 ORA-1034 ORA-27123 SVR4 Error: 13: Permission denied when other then Oracle user

Note 356957.1 OpenVMS: Client Connections Report ORA-1034, ORA-27123, %SYSTEM-W-REGISFULL

Note 1401726.1 ORA-27123 When Starting Instance With No Setting Of SGA_TARGET Or SGA_MAX_SIZE

Note 730107.1 Getting ORA-27123 & not able to run Oracle when logging to server by a user other than that installed Oracle although it belongs to the same group


ORA-1081 Errors


This error could occur when we try to startup an instance that is already running or if the shared segments/semaphores already exist.


Note 1010214.6 ORA-1081: Starting Instance

Note 18657.1 OERR: ORA 1081 cannot start already-running Oracle – shut it down first

NFS Related Issues


Note 8418190.8 Bug 8418190 – Direct NFS warnings during database startup

Note 236794.1 NFS Locking Problems Encountered During Database Startup


Note 1430654.1 Database Startup Failed with “Direct NFS: please check that oradism is setuid”

Note 430920.1 NetApp: Using ‘nolock’ NFS Mount Option with non-RAC Systems Results in Database Corruption

ORA-600 /ORA-7445 Errors


Note 435436.1 ORA-00600: [kccpb_sanity_check_2] During Instance Startup

Note 101589.1 Startup database returns ORA-00600 [ktpridestroy2]

Note 405602.1 ORA-600 [16305] While Starting Up the Database

Note 466596.1 Core Dumps In skgfqio() – Database Startup Hangs/Spins

Note 336447.1 Startup Database Produces ORA-00600: [Keltnfy-Ldminit]

Note 847786.1 Can Not Open Database After Shutdown get ORA-7445 [kewa_dump_time_diff]

Note 779071.1 Unable to Start Instance Due to ORA-600 [skgmhash] after a clean shutdown

Note 549000.1 ORA-600 [6006] ORA-600 [6856] During Startup Instance, Followed by Termination by SMON

Note 453775.1 Database Startup Fails With ORA-7445 [INVALID PERMISSIONS FOR MAPPED OBJECT] After Creation of User LBACSYS


Transaction Recovery Slowness


There could be slowness in the database during the open phase when the database is busy performing transaction recovery.


Note 1494886.1 Database Transaction Recovery

Note 414242.1 Database Hangs Because SMON Is Taking 100% CPU Doing Transaction Recovery

Note 12934890.8 Bug 12934890 – Startup hangs waiting for row cache lock due to open transaction against UNDO$

ORA-704 Errors


This is a general error reported at startup when there is some problem during processing of bootstrap information.There should be an accompanying error/s.


Note 18494.1 OERR: ORA 704 “bootstrap process failure”

Note 560417.1 Recovery Through Upgrade returns ORA-1092 on Open

Note 1349722.1 Ora-00704,Ora-39700: Database Must Be Opened With Upgrade Option

Note 435337.1 Unable To Open Database Before/After Upgrade – ORA-00704 ORA-39700 ORA-01092

Note 1383179.1 Unavailable Bootstrap Object ACCESS$ Causes ORA-704 ORA-604 ORA-942 When Opening Database

Note 1345417.1 After failed upgrade, startup from a restored backup fails on ORA-00704 and ORA-39700

ORA-9968 Errors


There are some client shadow processes hanging. Although the lk< SID> file is deleted the hanging processes still have a lock on the open file handle. This prevents the database to startup although a new lk file can be created successfully. An oracle process (background or shadow process) that exists while the instance is not started (crashed or not cleanly stopped) can have a lock on a file while this file is actually removed from the system. This is because on UNIX there is still a lock on the open file handle.


Note 467251.1 ORA-09968, ORA-01102 When Starting a Database

Note 160395.1 Database Startup Fails with ORA-1102 and ORA-9968

Note 1488147.1 Instance Startup Raises Error ORA-09968: unable to lock file (Doc ID 1488147.1)

ORA-12547 Errors


The error ORA-12547 indicates that the communication channel has been broken. It’s most often thrown because the other end of the process went away unexpectedly.


Note 1307075.1 Oracle Database Fails to Start with Error ORA-12547

Note 381566.1 connect / as sysdba Fails with Ora-12547 And Tns-12514

Note 744512.1 Ora-12547: Tns:Lost Contact Creating Database After Clean Installation

ORA-27125 Errors



Note 199068.1 OpenVMS: Instance startup fails with ORA-27125 and %SYSTEM-F-VA_IN_USE

Note 121983.1 Starting Database Fails on Solaris with ORA-27126 or ORA-27125 Using LOCK_SGA

Note 577428.1 OpenVMS: Following an Oracle RELINK, Database Instance Startup fails with ORA-27125 or ORA-7217

ORA-1157 Errors


The background process was not able to find one of the datafiles.The database will prohibit access to this file but other files will be unaffected.However, the first instance to open the database will need to access all online datafiles.Accompanying messages from the operating system will describe why the file was not found.


Note 184327.1 ORA-1157 Troubleshooting

Note 1035992.1 Oracle Troubleshooting

Note 212053.1 ORA-1157/ORA-1110 Trying To Open The Database

Note 145194.1 ORA-1157 ORA-1110 ORA-27086 Starting up Database

Note 444151.1 ORA-01157 on Database Startup After Dropping an Alias

Note 301635.1 ORA-01157, ORA-01110, ORA-27046 Starting A Restored Database

Note 429912.1 ORA-01157 ORA-01110 ORA-27086 after crash prevents database from opening

Note 256835.1 Database Startup Fails With ORA-1110, ORA-1157, ORA-27092 Trying Startup From ‘at’ or ‘cron’ on HP-UX

Other Issues


Note 1113864.1 MBIND: Cannot Allocate Memory On Startup


Note 6795133.8 Bug 6795133 – Startup delayed by QMNC queries

Note 301072.1 Dbstart Fails With Ora-01031 When Called From User Root

Note 1286665.1 ORA-00371: Not Enough Shared Pool Memory signalled on Startup

Note 779356.1 Database not starting up with errors ORA-01092 ORA-24324 ORA-01041

Note 1176443.1 ORA-4031 During Startup Nomount using RMAN without parameter file (PFILE)

Note 839789.1 ORA-12853 / ORA-4031 or ORA-4030 on Instance Startup With increased SGA size

Common Errors / Issues During Database Shutdown


The most common issue observed while bringing down the database is shutdown immediate hang. The main reasons for Shutdown immediate hang is:

– processes still continue to be connected to the database and do not terminate.

– SMON is cleaning temp segments or performing delayed block cleanouts.

– Uncommitted transactions are being rolled back.


The below section provides the consolidated list of known issues during shutdown. The documents mentioned in the below section can be specific to platform or database versions.


Shutdown Slow / Hang


Note 1197314.1 Shutdown Normal Hung On ORA_J00# Process

Note 309230.1 Database Doesn’t Shutdown Immediate During Server Boot

Note 1039389.6 Alert Log: Shutdown Waiting for Active Calls to Complete

Note 305666.1 Shutdown is Cancelled With ORA-1013 After Waiting for an Hour

Note 1194229.1 Database shutdown immediate Hangs: Startup can also hang

Note 1183213.1 Shutdown Normal or Immediate Hang Waiting for MMON process

Note 428688.1 Bug 5057695: Shutdown Immediate Very Slow To Close Database

Note 416658.1 Shutdown Immediate Hangs / Active Processes Prevent Shutdown

Note 437876.1 Database Does Not Shutdown Cleanly When Oracle Service Is Restarted

Note 304414.1 Shutdown hangs in 9i with: SHUTDOWN: waiting for logins to complete

Note 332177.1 Database Shutdown Immediate Takes Forever, Can Only Do Shutdown Abort

Note 13440516.8 Bug 13440516 – Index skip scan cannot be interrupted – can block shutdown

Note 12879056.8 Bug 12879056 – Index skip scan cannot be interrupted – can block shutdown

ORA-1031 Errors


Note 309059.1 Oradim Command Fails to Shutdown Database(s) with ORA-01031 under

Note 846679.1 Ora-1031 Error Stopping Database Or Permission Denied Error Running Lsnrctl

Transaction Recovery


Note 375935.1 What To Do and Not To Do When ‘shutdown immediate’ Hangs

Note 1076161.6 Shutdown Normal or Shutdown Immediate Hangs. SMON disabling TX Recovery

Note 414242.1 Database Hangs Because SMON Is Taking 100% CPU Doing Transaction Recovery

Note 100054.1 Transaction Rollback after a failed operation or during Database Shutdown

ORA-600 / ORA-7445 Errors


Note 604067.1 Ora-600[3708] On Database Shutdown

Note 455181.1 ORA-00600[17302] During Shutdown Immediate

Note 470362.1 ORA-07445 With kpogup At Database Shutdown

Note 1135453.1 Database Hung On Shutdown After ORA-600 [KGHFRE3] Error

Note 359563.1 ORA-00600: Internal Error Code, Arguments: [17302], [2] During Shutdown

Note 435926.1 Shutdown Database Erroring ORA-600 [Librarycachenotemptyonclose], []

Note 8519322.8 Bug 8519322 – ORA-600 [17148] / ORA-600 [730] on database shutdown

Note 1326908.1 Ora-00600: [3708], ORA-600 [2103] When Database shutdown on IBM:Linux on System Z

ORA-24324 Errors


Note 794293.1 ORA-24324 During Shutdown

Note 1168554.1 Ora-24324 And Ora-1041 Errors Trying To Startup Or Shutdown The Database



Note 1001248.1 On Solaris 9 Systems, Oracle Shutdown May Hang If Utilizing Dynamic Initmate Shared Memory (DISM)


Memory Related Errors


Note 1319253.1 “ERROR: SGA memory leak detected” message in alert.log on database shutdown


Other Issues


Note 1017085.102 ORA-01122, ORA-01210, ORA-01110: On Database Shutdown

Note 429603.1 ORA-29702 During Automatic Shutdown of Database using ASM


Note 784754.1 11g – Receiving Ora-27167 Error On Database Startup or Shutdown

Note 419651.1 Event 10621 and Event 10626/10629 Causes Shutdown Immediate to Hang

Note 118228.1 ALERT: Hang During Startup/Shutdown on Unix When System Uptime > 248 Days

Note 343031.1 How to deal with an ORA-01033 ‘Oracle startup or shutdown in progress’ error

Note 18302.1 OERR: ORA 106 cannot startup/shutdown database when connected to a dispatcher

Note 763932.1 Shutdown Error In EM: Execution Failed Due To Binary Missing Or Permission Issues

Note 10194190.8 Bug 10194190 – Solaris: Process spin / ASM and DB crash if RAC instance up for > 248 days

Note 1001248.1 On Solaris 9 Systems, Oracle Shutdown May Hang If Utilizing Dynamic Initmate Shared Memory (DISM)

Note 760968.1 Database Startup, Shutdown Or New Connections Hang With Truss Showing OS Failing Semtimedop Call With Err#11 EAGAIN


Issues specific to automatic shutdown and startup


This is specific to the automatic shutdown and startup that can be configured with the dbora / dbshut / dbstart scripts.


Automatic Startup Failure


The key to diagnosing automatic startup failures is to determine where startup fails. This can be done via the following steps:


Determine if instance starts manually as Oracle software owner.

Determine if instance starts via dbstart command run as Oracle software owner.

Determine if instance starts when root runs following dbstart command:

su – $ORA_OWNER -c $ORA_HOME/bin/dbstart


where $ORA_OWNER is set to Oracle software owner.

Determine if instance starts when running as root the OS script which calls dbstart, ie “/etc/init.d/dbora start”. NOTE: Running via sh -x command will show each command as it is run from script to better see what is going on.

#> sh -x /etc/init.d/dbora start

Automatic Shutdown Failure


As with automatic startup, the key to diagnosing automatic shutdown failures is to determine where shutdown fails. This can be done via following steps:


Determine if instance stops manually as Oracle software owner.

Determine if instance stops via dbshut command run as Oracle software owner.

Determine if instance stops when root runs command

su – $ORA_OWNER -c $ORA_HOME/bin/dbshut

where $ORA_OWNER is set to Oracle software owner.

Determine if instance stops when running as root the OS script which calls dbshut, ie “/etc/init.d/dbora stop”. NOTE: Running via sh -x command will show each command as it is run from script to better see what is going on.

#> sh -x /etc/init.d/dbora stop






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